Boron Lewis Dot Structure

Dec 15, 2021 | Chemistry

Boron Lewis Dot Structure

Lewis dot structure is the structure of an element or molecule, and total valence electrons are as dots to represent the bond pairs and lone pairs. Boron has an elemental symbol as “B,” and the electronic configuration counts as 2,3, its atomic number 5. Hence, it has three electrons in the valence shell, i.e., two electrons in 2s and 1 electron in 2p.

Boron Lewis Dot Structure

Boron Lewis Dot Structure

What is the Boron Lewis Dot Structure?

Lewis structures, also called Lewis dot formulas or electron dot shapes (LEDs), are diagrams showing the bonding between atoms and the possible lone pairs of electrons within a molecule. Lewis structures can be drawn for any covalently bound molecule and coordination compounds. The Lewis structure is named after Gilbert N. Lewis.

Each atom is shown in a Lewis structure. The chemical symbol also offers its location within the molecule’s structure. Lines are drawn between atoms bonded (pairs can be substituted for strings). The dots represent excess electrons that form lone pairs and are placed next to the atoms.

Main elements in the second phase and beyond often react by gaining or losing electrons until they achieve a valence shell electron configuration of (8) electrons. Hydrogen (H) cannot form bonds that share more than two electrons.

 

Lewis Dot Structure

Boron Lewis Dot Structure

Lewis Dot Structure

 

 Source: https://www.quora.com/Does-it-matter-where-you-put-the-dots-on-a-Lewis-structure

How to Draw a Lewis Dot Structure For Boron

A Lewis structure is a graphic representation of the electron distribution around atoms. 

Learning to draw Lewis structures allows you to predict the type and number of bonds formed around an atom. It is also possible to predict the geometry of a molecule by using a Lewis structure.

Step 1: Find the Total Number of Valence Electrons
In this step, add up the total number of valence electrons from all the atoms in the molecule.

Step 2: Find the Number of Electrons Needed to Make the Atoms “Happy”
When its outer electron shell has been filled, an atom is considered “happy.” Eight electrons are required to fill the outermost electron shells of elements up to four on the periodic list. This property is commonly known as the “Octet Rule.”

Step 3: Determine the Number of Bonds in the Molecule
Covalent bonds are formed when one electron forms an electron pair from each atom. Step 2 tells how many electrons are needed, and Step 1 is how many electrons you have. Subtracting the number in Step 1 from Step 2 gives you the number of electrons required to complete the octets. Each bond formed requires two electrons, so the number of bonds is half the number of electrons needed, or: (Step 2 – Step 1) / 2

Step 4: Choose a Central Atom
The central atom in a molecule is often the least electronegative of the atom having the highest valence. You can either use periodic table trends to find electronegativity or consult a table listing electronegativity values. Electronegativity decreases and moves from left to right over a period, moving down a group in the periodic table. The halogen and hydrogen atoms are more common outside a molecule than the central atom.

Step 5: Draw a Skeletal Structure
Connect the atoms using a straight line. This is a symbol of a bond between two atoms. There can be up to four other connected atoms to the central atom.

Step 6: Place Electrons Around Outside Atoms
Completion of the octets surrounding each outer atom. The skeletal structure in Step 5 may not be correct if there aren’t enough electrons to complete each octet. You might try a different arrangement. This may take some time to get used to, and it will get easier to predict the skeletal structures as you gain experience.

Step 7: Place Remaining Electrons Around the Central Atom
Completion and transfer of the octet from the central atom using all remaining electrons. Create double bonds using the lone pairs of outside atoms if any bonds are left from Step 3. A double bond is formed by two lines that are solidly drawn between two atoms. If the central atom has more than eight electrons and does not fall within the exceptions of the octet rules, then the number of valence-atoms in Step 1 could have been incorrectly counted. This completes the Lewis dot structure of the molecule.

Boron Lewis Dot Structure

Boron Lewis Dot Structure

 

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lewis_dot_B.svg

The Octet Rule

The octet principle is a rule of thumb in chemical chemistry that states that main-group elements tend to bond in such an order that each atom has eight electrons within its valence shell. This gives it the same electronic configuration that noble gases.

Many reactive intermediates are unstable and do not obey the octet rule. This includes species such as carbenes, borane, and free radicals like the methyl radical (CH3), which has an unpaired electron in a non-bonding orbital on the carbon atom and no electron of opposite spin the same orbital.

Central bonding atoms like Lithium (Li), Beryllium (Be), and Boron (B) have less than four valence electrons less than 8 electrons and therefore contradict the octet rule.

Lewis Dot Structure for Boron Trifluoride

To Draw the Lewis Dot Structure Of Boron trifluoride BF3, compute four variables : 

  • The total number of valence electrons.
  • Required number of electrons to complete octet.
  • Bonding electrons, i.e., number of pairs.
  • Lone pairs (non-bonding pairs: when electrons do not participate in the formation of bonding between atoms)
  • The atomic number of boron (B) and fluorine (F) is 5 and 9, respectively. Hence, you can calculate the number of valence electrons of both atoms using electronic configuration.

Born is an exception to the octet law. It requires six valence electrons for its outermost shell.

The compound contains one atom each of boron and three atoms each of fluorine. The computation shows that 24 valence electrons are required to form a bond between the atoms: 3 + 7 (3) = 24

For each atom to share the required number of electrons, F must have 8 electrons in its outermost shell, and B must have six valence electrons: 6 + 8 (3) = 30
Find the number of bonding electrons used in the Lewis dot structure.

Calculate the difference between total valence electrons and required electrons: 30 – 24 = 6

Six bonding pairs of electrons equals three covalent bonds between F and B.

Calculate the difference between the number of valence electrons and the number of bonding pair electrons to get lone pairs: 24 – 6 = 18, i.e., nine lone pairs

To complete the octets of electrons, choose the central atom before placing electrons around them.

According to the arrangement of elements in the table, B is the least electron-negative of F. Therefore, B forms three single bonds (6 electrons) with F’s atoms. Assign the 18 remaining valence electrons around so that each F has 6 electrons surrounding it.

According to our data, each fluorine must contain 8 electrons to complete the octet, and the boron must include 6 electrons for their stability. Fluorine has 6 electrons, which is a rare case in boron. Fluorine also completes its final shell by forming a bond with the electrons of the boron.

Conclusion 

The Lewis Dot Structure allows visibility of all electrons and determines if an atom follows the octet rules. Molecules can have both bonding and non-bonding electrons. These electrons are shared between atoms, also known as lone pairs.

Knowing the Lewis structure of an atom allows understanding of how it will bond and how many bonds it will form. This knowledge eventually can enable us to understand the shapes of molecules and their chemical properties.

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