Therapeutics And Boron Compounds
Boron-based therapeutics offer many benefits for patients. They are effective at treating a wide range of conditions, including cancer, osteoarthritis, and psoriasis. Boron compounds are also well tolerated by patients and have few side effects. In addition, boron-based therapeutics are combined with other treatments, such as surgery or radiation therapy.
Types of Boron Compounds in Therapeutics
The element boron has recently seen increased use in pharmaceuticals and therapeutics due to modern advances in boron chemistry. For medicinal chemists, boron compounds are new compounds in drug designs.
One of the most well-known boron compounds is Bortezomib (Velcade), which the FDA approved in 2003 for treating multiple myeloma (MM) and non-Hodgkins lymphoma. This discovery prompted several researchers to investigate boron chemistry further, leading to the discovery of Tavaborole and Crisaborole.
Bortezomib (also known as Velcade) is a medication used to treat certain types of cancer. It belongs to a group of medications called proteasome inhibitors. Bortezomib works by slowing the growth of cancer cells. It is given by injection directly into a vein or through the skin.
Bortezomib treats adults with mantle cell lymphoma (a rapidly growing cancer that develops in immune cells) and multiple myeloma (a cancer of the bone marrow). It is usually prescribed after other cancer treatments have failed.
Velcade commonly causes low blood cell counts, diarrhea, nausea, constipation, loss of appetite, and vomiting. Serious side effects may include cancer cell destruction, low blood pressure, and heart failure. It should not be taken during childbearing.
This medication works by blocking the proteasome. The proteasome is a protein complex that breaks down proteins in the cell. By blocking the proteasome, bortezomib prevents the breakdown of proteins, leading to cancer cell death.
Bortezomib is a powerful medication with serious side effects. It should be used only in patients who have not responded to other treatments. Patients should be closely monitored by their doctor for any signs of side effects.
Tavaborole (brand name Kerydin) is a medication that treats toenail fungal infections that induce spitting, discoloration, or pain. This medication is ineffective against other infection types, including those caused by bacteria. Any drug used in therapeutics to cure the infection that is used or misused unnecessarily reduces its effectiveness.
Tavaborole was regulated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2014 and now belongs to the group oxaborole antifungals.
It works by inhibiting leucyl-tRNA synthetase, a fungal enzyme needed for protein production. Protein synthesis inhibition causes cell growth to stop and then cell death, thereby removing the fungal infection. Tavaborole is a medication used to treat onychomycosis.
Tavaborole is available as a topical solution for use on the toes. It is typically used daily for 48 weeks at the same time. Do not apply more or less of the solution than what is prescribed by the doctor, and make sure not to get any of it on the healthy skin around the affected area. Apply no more or less solution than the doctor has prescribed, and avoid getting it out of your nose, eyes, mouth, and vagina.
The tavaborole topical solution has the potential to catch fire. While using this medication, keep away from direct sunlight and flames.
Crisaborole (Eucrisa) is a new non-steroidal topical ointment used to treat mild to moderate atopic dermatitis (eczema). It prevents the skin from producing inflammatory chemicals. Crisaborole also relieves eczema-related itching, redness, and scaling. It is only available on prescription as a cream, ointment, or solution and should be applied twice daily.
Crisaborole side effects include burning, stinging, and itching at the application site. It shouldn’t be used on cracked skin.
Eucrisa belongs to a class of drugs known as phosphodiesterase inhibitors in therapeutics. It was authorized by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2016 for people aged 3 months and up. In the European Union, it was authorized for people aged 2 years and older, with around 40% of body area affected.
The versatility of boron means it is used in a range of applications, from organic synthesis to approved drug components. AN2690 and AN2718 are currently developing antifungals, Januvia, Talabostat (PT100), and PHX1149 are DPP4 inhibitors, AN2728 treats psoriasis, AN0128 treats periodontal disease and acne, and TRI50c is an anticoagulant.
The surge of interest in boron chemistry is giving rise to new territories where we can optimize pathways while also exploring and producing boron compounds’ potent role in therapeutics. Aside from this, these compounds serve as newer technologies for stem cell biology, chemical biology, molecular imaging, and biomarker discovery.